James and Sean use their audio archeology skills to take you on another time travel adventure with original recordings from the distant past. This time we visit 1896 and 1897, hear the birth pangs of something not yet called ragtime, find out the true origins of ‘The Laughing Policeman’ and hear some jokes so rude that the performer was actually sent to jail.
Centuries of Sound is an independent podcast without any advertising, and it’s only with the support of my patrons that the show can survive. To download full mixes, get early access to the radio podcast, and a get host of other benefits for $5 (or local equivalent) per month, please come to https://patreon.com/centuriesofsound
At Centuries of Sound I am making mixes for every year of recorded sound. The download here is a cut-down 60 minute mix, for the full 180-minute version please come to centuriesofsound.com to stream, or patreon.com/centuriesofsound for downloads and a host of other bonus materials for just $5 per month.large.jpg">large.jpg?w=1024" alt="" class="wp-image-5104">
The crash has happened, then, the music industry has gone down with the Dow, and there’s no sign of anyone reviving it. I therefore approached this year with low expectations. Perhaps we would have music of the standard of say 1925, just with higher production standards. I was wrong.
1925 is still a good year to look to though, these two mixes are linked by a common thread; Russian documentary film-maker Dziga Vertov. As the cut-up sound collages he made in 1925 influenced the jagged sound of that year’s mix, so a series of samples from his documentary “Enthusiasm” – along with pieces from Walter Ruttman’s pioneering audio montage “Wochenende” – form the backbone of this also fairly harsh / jagged mix.
This time, however, the explosion in sound film has given me a lot more in terms of audio samples to cut up and push together. By “a lot more” I mean that the diverse qualities and sheer volume of source material which has gone into this mix made it feel like a huge project on its own. I feel like I’ve just lived through 1930. It was a fascinating time, this might well be the best mix I’ve made, but I also feel exhausted and emotionally drained by the experience. I am confident that this feeling doesn’t come through in the mix, by the way.
Normally here I would write a longer blurb, but this time, well, sorry, that’s it, but here’s the music, go listen to it.
0:00:21 MGM Studios – Lion’s Roar0:00:27 Groucho Marx – Animal Crackers (Excerpt 1)0:00:29 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 1)0:00:37 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 1)0:00:50 Louis Armstrong – Dear Old Southland0:04:05 James Sibley Watson – Tomatos Another Day (Excerpt 1)0:04:08 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 2)0:04:25 Jonuzi Me Shoket – Vome Kaba0:05:23 M. Nguyen Van Minh-Con – Nam Nhi-Tu0:06:09 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 2)0:06:24 Irving Mills Hotsy Totsy Gang – Deep Harlem0:08:04 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 3)0:08:16 George Bernard Shaw – New Talk To Movietone (Excerpt 1)0:08:34 Big Bill Broonzy – Hip Shakin’ Strut0:11:29 Groucho Marx and Margaret Dumont – Animal Crackers (Excerpt 2)0:11:45 Barbecue Joe and his Hot Dogs – Tar Paper Stomp (Wingy’s Stomp)0:13:30 Jean Harlow – Hells Angels (Excerpt 1)0:13:46 Lucille Bogan – They Ain’t Walking No More0:15:45 James Sibley Watson – Tomatos Another Day (Excerpt 2)0:16:02 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 3)0:16:06 Cyganska Orchestra Stefana – Cyganske Vesilia, Pt. 40:17:23 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 4)0:17:46 Lotte Lenya – Alabama Song0:19:10 Marlene Dietrich – Blue Angel Screentest (Excerpt 1)0:19:15 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 5)0:19:30 Marlene Dietrich – Falling In Love Again0:21:03 Marlene Dietrich – Ich Bin Von Kopf Biss Fuss0:22:29 Marlene Dietrich – Blue Angel Screentest (Excerpt 2)0:22:31 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 6)0:22:54 Louis Davids – Kleine Man (soundtrack)0:23:48 Albert Einstein – Einstein Speaks (1930 Movietone Moment)0:23:58 Comedian Harmonists – Wochenend Und Sonnenschein0:25:06 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 7)0:25:15 Lotte Lenya – Denn wie man sich bettet, so liegt man0:27:17 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 8)0:27:31 Joe Venuti – Wild Dog0:28:55 British Pathe – The Greatest Road Race Ever! (Excerpt 1)0:29:00 Casa Loma Orchestra – San Sue S0:30:57 British Pathe – Giant British Air Liner (Excerpt 1)0:31:06 Fletcher Henderson – Chinatown My Chinatown0:32:59 Unknown Performers – Unknown (Cantonese)0:33:08 Nai Po & Thai Royal Page Military Brass Band – Pleng Khrawp Chakara Wan Thao Tawn Abu Hassan Taeng Ngan0:34:42 Mr. Muean & Ms. Aet, The Sak Som Peo Ensemble – Srey Sroh Mien Thrung0:36:00 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 4)0:36:17 Jimmie Davis – Doggone That Train0:37:42 British Pathe – Giant British Air Liner (Excerpt 2)0:37:56 Jimmie Rodgers – Hobo Bill’s Last Ride0:40:27 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 5)0:40:35 Gus Cannon’s Jug Stompers – Money Never Runs Out0:42:13 Edward G. Robinson – Little Caesar (Excerpt 1)0:42:23 Cab Calloway and His Orchestra – The Viper’s Drag0:45:42 Greta Garbo – Anna Christie (Excerpt 1)0:45:56 The Jungle Band – Tiger Rag (Part II)0:47:23 Groucho Marx – Animal Crackers (Excerpt 3)0:47:25 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 6)0:47:29 Askari Wa K.A.R. Ya Sita (6th K.A.R.) – Kofia Nyekundu0:49:24 Mbaruk Talsam – Comic Sketch0:50:21 Richard Ábé Brown Band – Bārā Sānābo Bārā0:51:35 John Gilbert – Speech in front of the court in Redemption (Excerpt 1)0:51:42 Caluza’s Double Quartet – Imini Ifikile0:52:47 Blind Willie Johnson – John The Revelator0:54:31 Rev. D.C. Rice – We Got the Same Kinda Power Over Here0:56:31 Elder Curry – Memphis Flu0:58:31 Holy Ghost Sanctified Singers – Thou Carest Lord, For Me0:59:16 James A Fitzpatrick – Movie Horoscope (Excerpt 1)0:59:25 Jack Hylton – Great Day1:00:45 Santa Claus – Meets Calvin Coolidge1:00:57 Paul Whiteman – Ragamuffin’ Romeo1:02:39 Elinor Glyn – Explains IT! (Excerpt 1)1:02:57 Ethel Waters – Three Little Words1:05:51 Anne Sullivan – Newsreel Footage1:06:01 Jack Payne BBC Dance Orchestra – My Baby Just Cares For Me1:07:17 Jack Payne BBC Dance Orchestra – Will Anybody Here Have A Drink?1:08:55 Grigoraș Dinicu – Ca Pe Luncă1:11:29 Greta Garbo – Anna Christie (Excerpt 2)1:11:32 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 9)1:11:53 Josephine Baker – J’ Ai Deux Amours1:13:26 Lucienne Boyer – Dans La Fumée1:15:26 British Pathe – Great Danes (Excerpt 1)1:15:47 Maurice Chevalier – Livin’ In The Sunlight1:17:54 Georgius – Je suis blasé1:19:33 Pola Illéry & Albert Préjean – Sous les toits de Paris1:19:45 Ruth Etting – Ten Cents A Dance1:21:57 James Sibley Watson – Tomatos Another Day (Excerpt 3)1:22:14 Boswell Sisters – That’s What I Like About You1:24:13 Charles Farrell – Love Scene from Liliom (Excerpt 1)1:24:24 Luis Russell & His Orchestra – Panama1:27:40 Laurel & Hardy – Scene from The Laurel-Hardy Murder Case (Excerpt 1)1:27:47 Ben Tobier And His California Cyclones – Hot And Heavy1:30:15 President Cosgrave – British Pathe Newsreel (Excerpt 1)1:30:29 Fred Astaire – Puttin On The Ritz1:32:02 British Pathe & Albert Einstein – Relatively Speaking … He’s Delighted!1:32:13 Ben Selvin – Happy Days Are Here Again1:34:06 Robert Montgomerie – The Big House (Excerpt)1:34:10 Memphis Jug Band – Cocaine Habit Blues1:36:56 Reichsprassident Von Hindenburg – Am Rhein! Aka Reichsprafident (Excerpt 1)1:37:07 Chuck Darling – Blowing Blues1:37:54 Dilly and his Dill Pickles – Pickin’ Off Peanuts1:39:21 Emmett Miller – Sam’s New Job (Excerpt)1:39:37 Yank Rachel With Sleepy John Estes & Jab Jones – Sweet Mama1:41:12 Greta Garbo – Anna Christie (Excerpt 3)1:41:15 Mississippi Bracey – You Scolded Me And Drove Me1:42:59 British Pathe – The Fastest Game In The World1:43:09 Roy Harvey & Jess Johnson – Jefferson Street Rag1:45:18 Calvin Coolidge – Meets Santa Claus1:45:28 Lil McClintock – Don’t Think I’m Santa Claus1:46:32 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 10)1:46:47 Son House – My Black Mama, Pt. 1 & 21:48:41 Willie Walker – South Carolina Rag1:50:56 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 6)1:51:25 Walter Page – Blue Devil Blues1:54:07 Helen Keller & Anne Sullivan – 1930 Newsreel Footage (Excerpt 2)1:54:35 Carmen Miranda – Deixa Disso1:55:35 James A Fitzpatrick – Movie Horoscope (Excerpt 2)1:55:44 Orquesta Tipica Porteña – Esponjita1:56:50 British Pathe – Soccer Again1:56:57 California Rambers – The Peanut Vendor1:59:24 British Pathe – Great Danes (Excerpt 2)1:59:30 Joe Venuti’s Blue Four – Raggin’ The Scale2:00:40 George Bernard Shaw – New Talk To Movietone (Excerpt 2)2:00:57 Fritz Kreisler – Liebesleid (Kreisler) (Love’s Sorrow)2:02:07 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 11)2:02:37 Llaqi Me Llautte – Havazi I Dy Motrave2:03:20 Norma Shearer & Chester Morris – The Divorcee (Excerpt 1)2:03:54 Madame Hafize & Selim – Sta Triya (Treshe (In Three) Dance)2:04:21 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 7)2:04:39 James Sibley Watson – Tomatos Another Day (Excerpt 4)2:04:53 King Oliver – Mule Face Blues2:07:46 Groucho Marx and Margaret Dumont – Animal Crackers (Excerpt 4)2:08:06 Bix Beiderbecke Orchestra – I’ll Be A Friend With Pleasure2:09:39 Red Nichols & His Five Pennies – Bug-A-Boo2:12:47 British Pathe – The Greatest Road Race Ever! (Excerpt 2)2:12:53 Louis Armstrong – St. Louis Blues2:13:56 Cab Calloway – St. Louis Blues2:16:03 Charles Farrell – Love Scene from Liliom (Excerpt 2)2:16:04 Frankie Trumbauer & His Orchestra – Get Happy2:18:28 Groucho Marx – Animal Crackers (Excerpt 5)2:18:33 James P Johnson – Jingles2:20:30 Jack Payne BBC Dance Orchestra – Any Rags Bottles Or Bones2:21:02 A.A. Gray & Seven Foot Dilly – Streak of Lean, Streak of Fat2:22:14 Greta Garbo – Anna Christie (Excerpt 4)2:22:17 Jimmie Rodgers – Those Gambler’s Blues2:24:58 John Gilbert – Speech in front of the court in Redemption (Excerpt 2)2:25:09 Geeshie Wiley – Last Kind Words Blues2:26:23 Edward G. Robinson – Little Caesar (Excerpt 2)2:26:31 Giftiddle Jim – Paddlin’ Blues2:29:43 Laurel & Hardy – Scene from The Laurel-Hardy Murder Case (Excerpt 2)2:29:51 Charley Patton – High Water Everywhere (part 1)2:31:41 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 12)2:32:05 Delta Big Four – We All Gonna Face The Rising Sun2:33:03 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 8)2:33:11 Cheikha Tetma – Guenene Tini2:33:28 Urbano A. Zafra & Mauro Baradi – Danza Filipina2:35:02 Elinor Glyn – Explains IT! (Excerpt 2)2:35:12 Sak Som Peo Ensemble – Phleng Boran2:37:02 James Sibley Watson – Tomatos Another Day (Excerpt 5)2:37:15 Los Jardineros – Conversacion2:38:24 George Bernard Shaw – New Talk To Movietone (Excerpt 3)2:38:32 António Landeiro – Variações Sobre o Fado Corrido Em Ré Maior2:39:50 Jean Harlow – Hells Angels (Excerpt 2)2:39:55 Fred Rich – I Got Rhythm (vocal Smith Ballew)2:42:21 Charles Farrell – Love Scene from Liliom (Excerpt 3)2:42:33 The Jungle Band – Mood Indigo2:44:46 Reichsprassident Von Hindenburg – Am Rhein! Aka Reichsprafident (Excerpt 2)2:44:50 Barbecue Joe and his Hot Dogs – Tin Roof Blues2:45:36 Missourians – Swingin’ Dem Cats2:47:00 Bennie Moten – Bouncin’ Round2:48:15 President Cosgrave – British Pathe Newsreel (Excerpt 2)2:48:20 Joe Venuti – I’ve Found A New Baby2:51:14 James Sibley Watson – Tomatos Another Day (Excerpt 6)2:51:28 Willie Brown – Future Blues2:52:58 Bayless Rose – Jamestown Exhibition2:54:45 Groucho & Zeppo Marx – Animal Crackers (Excerpt 6)2:54:50 The Deauville Syncopators – Cheerful Little Earful2:56:36 Elinor Glyn – Explains IT! (Excerpt 3)2:56:55 Helen Kane – How Are You?2:57:41 Newsreel – Hells Angels Premiere2:58:00 Dziga Vertov – Enthusiasm! The Dombass Symphony (Excerpt 9)2:58:14 Julius Meytuss – Dnieprostroi, The Dnieper Hydro-electric Power Station2:59:17 Walter Ruttmann – Wochende (Excerpt 13)2:59:36 Leopold Stokowski and The Philadelphia Orchestra – 1812 Overture Op. 493:00:39 George Bernard Shaw – New Talk To Movietone (Excerpt 4)3:00:57 Ben Bernie – Au Revoir Pleasant Dreams3:02:30 Lewis Milestone – All Quiet on the Western Front (Excerpt)
James and Sean continue their voyage into the distant history of sound recording. This time we cover the years 1894 and 1895, a time of popular unrest, great literature, and a burgeoning wax cylinder market, with at least two songs bound to be familiar to listeners in the present day. Also, as ever, plenty of Americans with moustaches, middle initials and banjos.
Centuries of Sound is an independent podcast without any advertising, and it’s only with the support of my patrons that the show can survive. To download full mixes, get early access to the radio podcast, and a get host of other benefits for $5 per month, please come to https://patreon.com/centuriesofsound
At Centuries of Sound I am making mixes for every year of recorded sound. The download here is a cut-down 45 minute mix, for the full 180-minute version please come to centuriesofsound.com to stream, or patreon.com/centuriesofsound for downloads and a host of other bonus materials for just $5 per month.large.jpg?w=575" alt="" class="wp-image-4999">
It’s rare for a decade to top and tail itself as well as the 1920s does. Ten episodes ago we saw the introduction of prohibition, gangsters and speakeasies, Mamie Smith, classic female blues and the race records boom. By 1929, whatever the feeling on the ground, everything sounds very different on record. We have sound film, radio stations and electrical recording technology. No longer is the record industry confined to New York – engineers are now travelling around the USA, recording sounds, spreading their influence across the world. And while we are not operating at quite the pace of 1927 now, as we head into 1929 there are few signs that anything is slowing down.
It is unlikely that most of the musicians here were watching the stock market, but as with all the other external factors above, it was about to have a huge impact on their work. In the summer of 1929 some financiers warned that the market was slowing down, though this was not thought to be a cause for great concern. Economist Irving Fisher, featured in this mix, commented that “stock prices have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau.” By September, however, there was a clear downward trend, with the London Stock Exchange crashing on the 20th. On the 24th October, now referred to as Black Thursday, the New York Stock Exchange also crashed, though it was the still-unmatched 25% two-day fall of the 28th and 29th which saw the most damage done.
The effect on the music business was devastating. Some analyses have record sales falling by 95% over the next couple of years – and there was no way that the majority of labels were going to survive that sort of shock. For the majority of performers, for whom this was already a part-time gig, this was the end of their professional careers. Some would manage to move to radio, or the movies, the two still-profitable fields of entertainment during the great depression, but for many of these artists, these are the last records they would make.
So it’s tempting to think of the music in this mix as something of an end-of-term party, but it isn’t really true. As far as anyone was concerned, it was business as usual, and if anything most artists seem a little more polished, and in some cases even restrained – though there is still plenty of passion here. The relentless innovation and experimentation of the last two years is still present, but it’s being recorded in a more careful, more deliberate way – from small-scale almost field recordings to professional studios, this is the absolute peak of engineering for quite a few years to come.
So that was the 1920s, then – maybe not the best decade for recorded music overall, but easily the one with the greatest improvement from start to finish.
0:00:20 Movietone Newsreel – Trooping the Colour (Excerpt 1)0:00:38 Various – Early Sound Footage of Kyoto, Japan (Excerpt 1)0:00:57 James Joyce – Anna Livia Plurabelle (Finnegans Wake) (Excerpt 1)0:01:03 Victor Symphony Orchestra feat. George Gershwin – An American In Paris (Excerpt 1)0:01:56 Burns and Allen – Lambchops (Excerpt 1)0:02:24 Duke Ellington & His Cotton Club Orchestra – Cotton Club Stomp0:04:46 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 1)0:04:54 Fats Waller – Handful Of Keys0:07:35 Laurel & Hardy – Unaccustomed As We Are (Excerpt 1)0:07:47 Bessie Smith – Kitchen Man0:09:24 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 2)0:09:36 Bing Crosby – Spell Of The Blues0:11:59 Walter Ripman MA – Good Speech Lecture (Excerpt 1)0:12:07 Jack Payne BBC Dance Orchestra – Riding On A Camel In The Desert0:14:45 James Joyce – Anna Livia Plurabelle (Finnegans Wake) (Excerpt 2)0:14:58 Messrs. Vyas Bros. – Jalatharangam-Mandolin Duet- Bhupali0:18:02 David Lloyd George – Unemployment (Excerpt 1)0:18:06 Don Azpiazu & His Havana Casino Orchestra – El Manisero (The Peanut Vendor)0:21:34 Domingo Aguirre – El Gato De Aguirre0:22:36 Horacio Paolantonio and Alfredo Pelaia – Uruguayita0:23:28 Agustín Barrios – La Catedral0:24:43 Movietone Newsreel – Trooping the Colour (Excerpt 2)0:24:51 Sekiya Toshiko – Field Thorns0:27:15 Various – Early Sound Footage of Kyoto, Japan (Excerpt 2)0:27:27 Sato Chiyako – Beniya no Musume0:28:05 Various – Early Sound Footage of Kyoto, Japan (Excerpt 3)0:28:33 Hotaru Koi – Sekiya Toshiko0:29:59 Various – Early Sound Footage of Kyoto, Japan (Excerpt 4)0:30:32 Blind Willie Dunn – Jet Black Blues0:33:32 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 3)0:33:50 Jelly-Roll Morton and His Orchestra – Burnin’ The Iceberg0:35:39 Laurel & Hardy – Unaccustomed As We Are (Excerpt 2)0:35:54 Louis Armstrong And His Orchestra – Ain’t Misbehavin’0:38:32 John Carson & Moonshine Kate – Okeh Medicine Show (Excerpt 1)0:38:41 Charlie Poole – If The River Was Whiskey0:40:00 AA Milne – Reads from Pooh’s Corner (Excerpt 1)0:40:31 Bert Ambrose – Tip Toe Through The Tulips0:41:58 Ramsay MacDonald – Unemployment (Excerpt 1)0:42:04 Blind Sammie – Travelin’ Blues0:45:05 Robert Wilkins – That’s No Way To Get Along0:46:12 Freeman Stowers – Railroad Blues0:47:44 Jimmie Rodgers – Waiting For A Train0:50:25 Eddie Mapp – Riding The Blinds0:51:13 British Pathe – Monologue from Henry V (Excerpt 1)0:51:24 Tampa Red’s Hokum Jazz Band – My Daddy Rocks Me With One Steady Roll0:53:47 Emmett Miller & Bud Blue – Okeh Medicine Show (Excerpt)0:54:48 Ethel Waters – Get Up Off Your Knees0:57:32 Burns and Allen – Lambchops (Excerpt 2)0:57:57 Alberta Hunter – My Particular Man0:59:37 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 4)0:59:48 The Jungle Band – Jungle Jamboree1:02:46 David Lloyd George – Unemployment (Excerpt 2)1:02:49 Jabbo Smith’s Rhythm Aces – Jazz Battle1:04:47 John Carson & Moonshine Kate – Okeh Medicine Show (Excerpt 2)1:05:22 Andy Kirk 12 Clouds Of Joy – Mess-A-Stomp1:06:06 Jelly Roll Morton – Pep1:07:45 Fats Waller – Numb Fumblin’1:08:16 James Ensor – Discours prononcé à l’occasion de son exposition rétrospective au Palais des Beaux-Arts de Bruxelles en 1929 (Excerpt 1)1:08:25 Amadie Breaux, Ophey Breaux & Cleoma Breaux – Ma Blond Est Partie1:09:45 James Ensor – Discours prononcé à l’occasion de son exposition rétrospective au Palais des Beaux-Arts de Bruxelles en 1929 (Excerpt 2)1:09:53 Bartmon Montet – Je Me Suis En Alle1:10:35 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 5)1:10:44 Fred Sugar Hall – I Faw Down And Go Boom (vocal – Arthur Hall)1:12:02 Burns and Allen – Lambchops (Excerpt 3)1:12:33 Fred Rich – Singin’ In The Rain1:14:54 Song Mei-Ling – Newsreel Speech1:15:00 Nicholas DeHeer – Ewuri Beka1:15:49 Victor Symphony Orchestra feat. George Gershwin – An American In Paris (Excerpt 2)1:18:03 Henry Newbolt – Vitai Lampada (Excerpt)1:18:27 Stokowski – Stravinsky ‘Rite of Spring’1:19:33 Alfred Hitchcock – Knife scene from Blackmail1:19:57 Lizzie Miles – I Hate A Man Like You (+ Jelly Roll Morton)1:21:42 Henry Newbolt – Drake’s Drum (Excerpt 1)1:21:58 Ricardo Borges de Sousa, João de Matos & Eduardo Alves – Fado Espanhol E Alexandrino1:23:12 G. de Sousa & S. Freire – Variações sobre o fado corrido1:25:20 Maria Alice – O Louco1:27:13 João Pernambuco – Sonho De Magia1:28:13 João de Matos & Eduardo Alves – Fado de outros tempos1:29:39 Margaret Bondfield – Speech (Excerpt 1)1:29:59 Abd-ol-Hoseyn Shahnazi – Mavara’-an-Nahr (Rast!Panjgah)1:30:14 The Jungle Band – Tiger Rag1:33:06 Burns and Allen – Lambchops (Excerpt 4)1:33:11 Seven Gallon Jug Band – Wipe Em Off1:35:46 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 6)1:35:58 The Bubbling Over Five – Don’t Mistreat Your Good Boyfriend1:37:18 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 7)1:37:34 Bowman Sisters – Old Lonesome Blues1:38:35 Alabama Sacred Harp Singers – Present Joys1:39:23 Rev. D. C. Rice and Congregation – In The Battlefield For My Lord1:41:29 Rev. J.M. Milton – The Black Camel of Death1:43:56 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 8)1:44:21 Big Chief Henry’s Indian String Band – The Indian Tom Tom1:45:26 Roy Harvey & Leonard Copeland – Lonesome Weary Blues1:48:17 John Carson & Moonshine Kate – Okeh Medicine Show (Excerpt 3)1:48:27 Dallas String Band with Coley Jones – Shine1:49:44 James Joyce – Anna Livia Plurabelle (Finnegans Wake) (Excerpt 3)1:49:57 The Carter Family – John Hardy Was a Desperate Little Man1:51:49 AA Milne – Reads from Pooh’s Corner (Excerpt 2)1:51:56 Gid Tanner & His Skillet-Lickers – It Ain’t Gonna Rain No Mo’1:53:03 Emmett Miller & Moonshine Kate – Okeh Medicine Show (Excerpt)1:53:13 Earl Hines – Everybody Loves My Baby1:54:28 Walter Ripman MA – Good Speech Lecture (Excerpt 2)1:54:37 Arthur Miles – Lonely Cowboy Part 11:54:56 Luis Russell – New Call Of The Freaks1:57:04 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 9)1:57:17 Joe Venuti – Running Ragged (Blue Four)1:59:22 Ramsay MacDonald – Unemployment (Excerpt 2)1:59:56 Bessie Smith – St.Louis Blues2:01:47 Margaret Bondfield – Speech (Excerpt 2)2:02:01 Clara Smith – It’s Tight Like That2:05:10 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 10)2:05:28 Roosevelt Sykes – Boot That Thing2:07:32 Meade Lux Lewis – Honky Tonk Train2:09:30 Walter Ripman MA – Good Speech Lecture (Excerpt 3)2:09:45 Rudy Vallee – Baby Oh Where Can You Be?2:12:56 James Joyce – Anna Livia Plurabelle (Finnegans Wake) (Excerpt 4)2:13:01 Frank Stokes – I Got Mine2:14:25 British Pathe – Monologue from Henry V (Excerpt 2)2:14:31 Walter Page’s Blue Devils – Squabblin’2:17:31 Burns and Allen – Lambchops (Excerpt 5)2:17:55 Karol Stoch – Na Lysej Polanie (On Lysej Polana)2:19:37 Julie Marsellaise – Yama Na Chauf Haja Tegennen2:20:51 Mussolini – Movietone Speech 29 Jan 19292:21:13 Blind Blake – Hastings Street2:22:27 Melvin Dupree – Augusta Rag2:23:12 Interviews With Elderly People Throughout The US (Excerpt 11)2:23:31 Louis Armstrong And His Savoy Ballroom Five – Mahogany Hall Stomp2:26:41 Movietone Newsreel – Trooping the Colour (Excerpt 3)2:26:49 Irving Fisher – Speech2:26:56 Sergei Rachmaninov & Philadelphia Orchestra – Piano Concerto N°2 in C minor Op.18 – III. Allegro scherzo2:28:12 Eddie Cantor – Tips On The Stock Market (Excerpt 1)2:28:23 Jabbo Smith’s Rhythm Aces – Till Times Get Better2:30:10 Eddie Cantor – Tips On The Stock Market (Excerpt 2)2:30:28 Victor Symphony Orchestra feat. George Gershwin – An American In Paris (Excerpt 3)2:30:43 James Joyce – Anna Livia Plurabelle (Finnegans Wake) (Excerpt 5)2:30:54 Movietone Newsreel – Closing Theme
More audio time travel adventures from James and Sean. This time we cover the years 1892 and 1893, the world’s fair in Chicago, a couple of notorious murderers, some rude jokes about Frances Folsom (the wife of the President of the USA), and some popular music hall songs, which may not be as innocent as they seem.
Centuries of Sound is a monthly mix of original music and sounds from a year in history. Right now we’re up to 1928. To download full mixes, get early access to the radio podcast, and a get host of other benefits for $5 per month, please come to https://patreon.com/centuriesofsound
At Centuries of Sound I am making mixes for every year of recorded sound. The download here is a cut-down 45 minute mix, for the full three-hour version please come to centuriesofsound.com to stream, or patreon.com/centuriesofsound for downloads and a host of other bonus materials for just $5 per month.large-picture.jpg?w=835" alt="" class="wp-image-4873">
In Chicago, Al Capone was at the height of his powers in 1928, but, as we always must, let’s go on a wild tangent to look at the dull metal structures which loomed hundreds of feet over his head. In February, work began on a new transmitter site for WMAQ Radio in Chicago. WMAQ already had a powerful transmitter in the city, but since it was built in 1922 a brace of skyscrapers (The Chicago Temple Building, The Civic Opera House, The Pittsfield Building) had sprung up around it, reducing its reach to less than half the city. The new transmitter had five times the power of the old, fortunate for the city as this was also the year that WMAQ got hold of two white actors, Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll, to play the roles of Amos and Andy in a new radio sitcom. The show would soon become the biggest name in radio, staying on the air for over 30 years, and all the more notably so because its two lead characters were black.
It was, of course, not really in the spirit of the nascent civil rights movement to have this sort of audio blackface as the most mainstream of entertainments, but, despite the embarrassed moving-on of generations of musical historians, minstrelsy was still very much a visible force a decade into the jazz age. Godsen and Correll had come from that world, so had Al Jolson, and so had Emmett Miller, a more obscure figure, who still managed to straddle the worlds of minstrelsy (he wore and performed blackface), jazz (he sang blues songs and performed with jazz musicians) and country (his yodel predated that of Jimmie Rodgers.) Things at this time are messy – messy can be good, genre boundaries seem to stifle innovation more than guide it – and the wonderful and the repellent can be so entangled as to be inseparable.
Over in that other hotspot of the decade, New York, for example, Duke Ellington was performing at the legendary Cotton Club. The name of this establishment was chosen as evocative of the old days of the deep south – it was in fact no less than an antebellum-themed nightclub, with a whites-only policy as far as customers were concerned. Decorations on the walls presented black people either as slaves or jungle savages. On stage, of course, was an a-to-z of famous black performers – Ellington, Ethel Waters, Fletcher Henderson, and soon Cab Calloway, all performing for rich white New Yorkers.
Edward Kennedy Ellington was the resident bandleader of the club, encouraged to play “jungle music,” yet he could not have fitted less the role if he tried. A classically trained upper-middle-class pianist from Washington DC, he was nicknamed ‘Duke’ by the friends he made when he ventured out into the world of jazz, a joke about his sophisticated clothing, which was hardly typical of a jazz musician.
Ellington may not have really made any “jungle music” but ‘The Mooche’ does seem to capture the dark, seedy underworld of the 1920s like nothing else. It’s impossible for me to hear it and imagine a dull audience of rich white stiffs at their theme pub, it’s more like the theme to a dingy speakeasy where something terrible is about to go down.
0:00:22 Rudy Wiedoeft – Radio Program (Excerpt 1)0:00:24 Duke Ellington And His Orchestra – The Mooche0:03:33 John A. Scott & Mr. Greenfield – Radio program for WAAM, Newark, New Jersey (Excerpt 1)0:03:46 Mississippi John Hurt – Ain’t No Tellin’0:06:39 Clapham & Dwyer – A Day’s Broadcasting (Excerpt 1)0:06:50 Rev. Edward W. Clayborn – A Letter From Father0:09:44 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 1)0:10:19 Johnny Noble’s Hawaiians Featuring M. K. Moke – Hilo March0:12:10 Clapham & Dwyer – A Day’s Broadcasting (Excerpt 2)0:12:25 Grupo De ‘La Alegria’ – El Tambor De La Alegria0:15:48 Red Nichols – WAAM Edison Radio Disc (Excerpt 1)0:16:07 Pierre Pinchik – Rozo D’shabbos0:18:44 George Bernard Shaw – Fox Movietone Newsreel (Excerpt 1)0:18:57 Cow Cow Davenport – Cow Cow Blues0:22:01 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 2)0:22:17 Eddie Cantor – Makin’ Whoopee!0:23:33 Emmett Miller – Lion Tamers (Excerpt 1)0:24:05 Emmett Miller – I Ain’t Got Nobody0:27:09 Emmett Miller – Lion Tamers (Excerpt 2)0:27:33 Fletcher Henderson – Come On Baby0:30:23 Clapham & Dwyer – A Day’s Broadcasting (Excerpt 3)0:30:52 Duke Ellington – Black Beauty0:32:51 Red Nichols – WAAM Edison Radio Disc (Excerpt 2)0:33:07 Ethel Waters – Do What You Did Last Night0:35:44 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 3)0:36:00 Joseph Moskowitz, A. Olshanetsky’s Orchestra – Die Neie Sirba (The New Bulgar)0:38:50 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 4)0:38:59 Grigoraș Dinicu – Hora Staccato0:40:23 John A. Scott & Mr. Greenfield – Radio program for WAAM, Newark, New Jersey (Excerpt 2)0:40:39 Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five – A Monday Date0:41:06 Chicago Footwarmers – Brush Stomp0:42:55 George Bernard Shaw – Fox Movietone Newsreel (Excerpt 2)0:43:20 Henry Thomas – Bull Doze Blues0:45:17 Dallas String Band with Coley Jones – Hokum Blues0:47:23 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 5)0:47:41 The Washingtonians – Take It Easy0:50:12 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 6)0:51:00 Pelegongan of Kuta – Gonteng (djawa) pengwak solo0:52:38 Gong Of Belaluan – Kebyar Ding III – Oncang-Oncangan (Excerpt 1)0:53:36 Angklung Of Sidan – Lagu ‘ngisep dublag’0:54:15 Gender Wayang Of Kuta – Angkat Angatan0:54:51 Gong Of Busungbiu – Lagu ‘tabuh gari’0:55:21 Gong Of Belaluan – Kebyar Ding III – Oncang-Oncangan (Excerpt 2)0:55:42 Walt Disney Animation Studios – Steamboat Willie (Excerpt)0:56:14 Yahyâ Zarpanje – Mâhur0:57:23 Isa Kremer – Oi Abram0:58:14 Lucy German – Di Eybike Mame1:00:24 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 7)1:02:03 Joseph Falcon – Lafayette1:04:58 Cleoma Breaux & Joseph Falcon – Le Vieux Soulard et Sa Femme1:06:36 Charlie Bowman & His Brothers – Moonshiner & His Money1:09:42 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 8)1:09:49 John Mugat – Bukay1:11:10 James ‘Son’ Thomas – Jon Jo Ko1:12:09 Nicholas DeHeer – Edna Buchaiku1:13:34 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 9)1:13:46 Pine Top Smith – Pine Top’s Boogie Woogie1:17:04 Clapham & Dwyer – A Day’s Broadcasting (Excerpt 4)1:17:09 Bennie Moten – Get Low Down Blues1:18:37 Rudy Wiedoeft – Radio Program (Excerpt 2)1:18:41 Irving Aaronson And His Commanders, Vocal Refrain Irène Bordoni – Let’s Misbehave1:20:07 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 10)1:20:19 Irving Kaufman (with Vaughn DeLeath) – You Took Advantage of Me1:22:14 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 11)1:22:40 Roane County Ramblers – Hometown Blues1:24:04 Clapham & Dwyer – A Day’s Broadcasting (Excerpt 5)1:24:16 Jimmie Rodgers – In The Jailhouse Now1:26:26 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 12)1:26:44 Victoria Spivey – Dope Head Blues1:28:58 Rudy Wiedoeft – Radio Program (Excerpt 3)1:29:00 Bertha Idaho – Graveyard Love1:31:06 Red Nichols – WAAM Edison Radio Disc (Excerpt 3)1:31:21 Washington Phillips – Mother’s Last Word To Her Son1:33:46 Reverend Johnny Blakey – Warming By The Devil’s Fire (Excerpt 1)1:34:13 Arizona Dranes – He Is My Story1:36:03 Reverend Johnny Blakey – Warming By The Devil’s Fire (Excerpt 2)1:36:42 Daniels-Denson Sacred Harp Singers – Coronation1:37:25 Reverend Johnny Blakey – Warming By The Devil’s Fire (Excerpt 3)1:37:58 Dixie Jubilee Singers – Joshua Fit The Battle Of Jericho1:39:44 The Denson Quartet – Christian Soldier1:39:58 George Bernard Shaw – Fox Movietone Newsreel (Excerpt 3)1:40:18 Blind Willie Johnson – Jesus Make Up My Dying Bed1:41:43 Gladys Bentley – Wild Geese Blues1:43:17 Nellie Florence – Jacksonville Blues1:44:36 Johnson-Nelson-Porkchop – G. Burns Is Gonna Rise Again1:44:51 William Harris – Kansas City Blues1:46:31 Pink Anderson & Simmie Dooley – Every Day In The Week Blues1:48:07 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 13)1:48:26 Jack Smith – Miss Annabelle Lee1:50:30 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 14)1:50:52 Gay Ellis And Her Novelty Orchestra – You’re The Cream In My Coffee1:51:59 Helen Kane – I Wanna Be Loved By You1:53:11 Joe Venuti’s Blue Four – Goin’ Home1:56:13 Bix Beiderbecke and His Gang – Wa-Da-Da (Ev’rybody’s Doin’ It Now)1:58:08 Benny Goodman and His Boys – That’s A Plenty1:59:18 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 15)1:59:27 Louis Armstrong And His Savoy Ballroom Five – St. James Infirmary2:02:28 Victoria Spivey – Blood Thirsty Blues2:04:48 Mississippi John Hurt – Louis Collins2:06:09 Dick Justice – Cocaine2:08:10 The Carter Family – John Hardy2:09:42 George ‘Chicken’ Wilson & Jimmy ‘Skeeter’ Hinton – Chicken Wilson Blues2:10:22 Tom Morrison – The Connaught Reel – The Shephard’s Daughter2:12:24 Michael Coleman – Lord McDonald’s (reels)2:14:00 Packie Dolan And His Melody Boys – Lasses Of Donnibrook2:14:28 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 16)2:14:42 Jelly Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers – Kansas City Stomps2:17:33 John A. Scott & Mr. Greenfield – Radio program for WAAM, Newark, New Jersey (Excerpt 4)2:17:43 Giovanni Vicari – Occhi di Bambola2:19:16 Agustín Barrios – Junto a tu Corazón2:20:07 Mario Reis – Jura2:21:04 Rosita Quiroga – Oíme Negro2:22:36 Marek Weber – Crepuscule Tango2:23:32 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 17)2:23:37 Ethel Waters – My Handy Man (+ Clarence Williams)2:26:32 Paul Whiteman & His Orchestra – There Ain’t No Sweet Man (Worth the Salt of My Tears)2:29:59 Fred Elizalde & His Music – Crazy Rhythm2:31:13 Frank Trumbauer and His Orchestra – Bless You Sister2:32:43 Clapham & Dwyer – A Day’s Broadcasting (Excerpt 6)2:33:10 Harry McClintock – Big Rock Candy Mountain2:37:10 Old South Quartette – Oysters And Wine At 2 A.M.2:37:48 Sol Hoopii & His Novelty Quartette – E Mama Ea2:39:38 Red Nichols – WAAM Edison Radio Disc (Excerpt 4)2:39:45 Fritz Kreisler – Indian Lament (Dvorak-arr Kreisler)2:40:36 Parush Parushev – Zemetresenie V Bulgaria [Earthquake In Bulgaria]2:41:03 Mordechai Hershman – Akavyo Ben Mahalalel2:43:03 Abe Schwartz Orchestra – Unzer Toirele2:45:25 Clapham & Dwyer – A Day’s Broadcasting (Excerpt 7)2:45:58 Houdini – Uncle Jo’ Gimme Mo’2:47:44 Lionel Belasco Orchestra – Blow Wind Blow2:49:05 Monk Hazel – High Society2:51:25 Kumasi Trio – Pen Pen Sin Pen2:52:55 The Harlem Footwarmers – Diga Diga Doo2:55:44 The Washingtonians – Jubilee Stomp2:56:30 McKinney’s Cotton Pickers – The Chocolate Dandies2:57:39 Charles Johnson’s Paradise Ten – Hot-Tempered Blues2:59:13 Hattie Burleson – Jim Nappy3:00:42 Tampa Red – Through Train Blues3:02:54 Palmer Mcabee – Lost Boy Blues3:03:48 Stripling Brothers – The Lost Child3:05:06 Weems String Band – Greenback Dollar3:06:06 Clapham & Dwyer – A Day’s Broadcasting (Excerpt 8)3:06:55 Harold Collins and his Orchestra – Fashionette3:07:45 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 18)3:07:49 Joe Venuti – Eddie Lang – Wild Cat3:09:13 Roger Wolfe Kahn – She’s A Great Great Girl3:10:58 King Oliver – Four Or Five Times3:12:38 Gus Cannon’s Jug Stompers – Madison Street Rag3:13:44 John A. Scott & Mr. Greenfield – Radio program for WAAM, Newark, New Jersey (Excerpt 5)3:14:06 Paul Robeson – Ol’ Man River (+ studio orchestra)3:16:46 George Bernard Shaw – Fox Movietone Newsreel (Excerpt 4)3:17:14 Ukulele Ike (Cliff Edwards) – (I’m Cryin’ `cause I Know) I’m Losing You3:20:03 John A. Scott & Mr. Greenfield – Radio program for WAAM, Newark, New Jersey (Excerpt 6)3:20:07 Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra – Basin Street Blues3:22:22 The Happiness Boys – Twisting The Dials (Excerpt 19)
“Another journey into the history of recorded sound with James and Sean. This time we delve into the vaults for 1890 and 1891, explore the pop music of the gilded age, and hear the voices of P.T. Barnum, Florence Nightingale, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Alfred, Lord Tennyson.”
Centuries of Sound is a monthly mix of original music and sounds from a year in history. Right now we’re up to 1926. To download full mixes and a get host of other benefits for $5 per month, please come to https://patreon.com/centuriesofsound
At Centuries of Sound I am making mixes for every year of recorded sound. The download here is a cut-down 30 minute mix, for the full two-hour version please come to centuriesofsound.com to stream, or patreon.com/centuriesofsound for downloads and a host of other bonus materials for just $5 per month.
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Over the last few years, writing these descriptions has often felt like an act of persuasion, an apology for poor sound quality and poor selection of available recordings, sweetened with some historical background to try to make the sounds accessible. There’s always plenty of music I love buried inside, but naturally I understand that getting past the hiss, the awful recording medium, the lack of quality musicians, the control of everything by a small group of New York businessmen who at best are indifferent to good music… well, it’s not easy to reach out to your listeners with what feels like a leap of faith, every time.
It’s 1927, and all of that is out the window, I might as well just put out this collection of astonishing music, as it can easily do the job of selling itself. This is an explosion of sound the likes of which have not been experienced before or for that matter since.
One of the many people responsible for this was Ralph Peer, talent scout for the Victor Talking Machine Company. For two months in 1927 he took his portable recording studio on the road, visiting cities through the southern United States. Between the 25th of July and the 5th August he was in residence in Bristol, Tennessee. The Ernest Stoneman, J.P. Nester and Tenneva Ramblers recordings made here would alone have made these sessions notable, but the discovery of the two acts which came to define “country music” are the reason this is referred to as the “Big Bang.”
Jimmie Rogers, “The Singing Brakeman” or “The Blue Yodeler” arrived at the sessions with a group in tow (the Tenneva Ramblers) but decided just at the right moment to go solo with his unique mix of country folk, vaudeville-inspired songwriting and yodelling. The song recorded, “Blue Yodel”, would go on to sell half a million copies, make Jimmie a superstar for the rest of his short life, and inspire musicians across the rest of the century.
The other great discoveries of the sessions were The Carter Family – A.P. Carter, his wife Sara Carter and his sister-in-law Maybelle Carter, who all made a precarious journey from Maces Spring, Virginia, while Sara was heavily pregnant, in order that they could record at the sessions. The combination of A.P.’s gathering of folk songs, Sara’s heavenly voice and autoharp and Maybelle’s revolutionary guitar-playing has proved to have as great a legacy as Jimmie Rodgers, if not greater.
The joy of the Bristol Sessions is not its uniqueness, quite the opposite. As you’ll be able to hear from this mix, there were many musicians throughout the USA and the world who were being recorded for the first time. With records still a luxury item unavailable to the working class, and radio still in its infancy, these artists each seem to have something to offer which was previously undiscovered. Everyone has their influences, of course, but this is the one moment where you’re hearing amateurs with a lifetime’s experience inventing their own music, suddenly being able to make the records which would lead to the next generation being able to swap influences and formulate the genres which we all know – for now though, everything is itself and nothing really belongs to anything else, it’s impossible to put anything in a box, the jazz is all blues is all folk is all country is all gospel.
And gospel music, or rather Christian music (it would be ridiculous to try to claim this disparate group of recordings represented “a genre”) is a massive force in this mix. The South was (and still is) a very religious place, and the church is one of the few places people could get together and express themselves. We have a full range of religious recordings here, from impassioned baptist sermons, to the religious folk music of Alfred Karnes and the almost Sufi-like meditative bliss of Washington Phillips, whose divinely inspired pieces, played on an unknown zither-like device of his own making, are some of those rare pieces of music so beautiful that it is truly hard to imagine their being of this world.
Just to scratch the surface of some of the other music being made around the world, 1927 is also the year Zonophone started recording West African musicians in London in order to try to open up this previously undiscovered market. I’m in danger of overusing the word ‘unique’ so let’s just say that everything I’ve said about the southern USA can be applied tenfold here – countless centuries of music are being dipped into for the first time, and far from being an ethnographic curiosity, nothing could be more shockingly direct.
And oh, I didn’t talk about Jazz, in what might be the greatest year of the jazz age! Why can’t things peak separately? Let’s focus on Bix Beiderbecke, as this is really his year – he opens this mix with his revolutionary piano piece (he was a cornet player) ‘In A Mist’, and features on at least five other tracks in one way or another. It’s impossible for me to write about him without putting this quote here, so I’m just going to do it.
“Bix Beiderbecke. The first great white jazz musician. Cornet player. Born in Davenport, Iowa, March 1903. Drank himself to death. Died August 1931, aged 28. Amazing man. They say his playing sounded like bullets shot from a bell.” — Trevor Chaplin, The Beiderbecke Affair, episode 1: “What I don’t understand is this…” by Alan Plater.
And what else? I’ve barely started, I can’t ever really do this music justice, all I can do is get this mix out there and hope people will listen, enjoy and share.
0:00:22 Bix Beiderbecke – In A Mist (Bixology) 0:03:03 The Harlem Footwarmers – That Jungle Jamboree 0:06:03 Al Jolson – Excerpt from ‘The Jazz Singer’ 1 0:06:10 Washington Phillips – Lift Him Up That’s All 0:08:52 Mrs. L. Reed; Mrs. T.A. Duncans – Light in the Valley (Excerpt 1) 0:09:01 Alfred G. Karnes – I Am Bound for the Promised Land 0:11:04 The Carter Family – The Poor Orphan Child 0:14:25 Jimmie Rodgers – Blue Yodel 0:16:36 Ben Simmons – (Blank) 0:17:00 Ben Simmons – Mu Kun Sebor Wa Wu 0:18:29 Prince Zulamkah – Ligiligi 0:19:01 The West African Instrumental Quintet – Adersu No. 2 0:22:02 Bix Beiderbecke and His Gang – At The Jazz Band Ball 0:24:50 Al Jolson – Toot, Toot, Tootsie, Goodbye 0:26:50 Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven – Twelfth Street Rag 0:29:09 Thomas A. Edison – Mary Had a Little Lamb 0:29:23 Savoy Orpheans – Vo Do Do De O Blues 0:32:36 Fletcher Henderson and His Orchestra – Fidgety Feet 0:35:28 Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Leopold Stokowski – Toccata and Fugue in D minor (Excerpt 1) 0:36:07 Steva Nikolič – Arnautka 0:38:23 Osip Mandelshtam – Gypsy Girl (Excerpt 1) 0:38:32 Tetos Demetriades – Miserlou 0:40:42 Osip Mandelshtam – Gypsy Girl (Excerpt 2) 0:40:49 Marika Papagika – Ti Se Méli Esénane 0:42:24 Dajos Béla and His Dance Orchestra – Jalousie 0:43:19 Iriarte-Pesoa – Instrumental – Pericón Por María 0:44:56 Domingo Aguirre – Atamisqueña 0:46:06 Orquesta Gelix Gonzalez – Cabaniguan 0:47:14 Frankie Trumbauer and His Orchestra – Singin’ the Blues (Till My Daddy Comes Home) 0:50:13 Jelly-Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers – The Pearls [Take 2] 0:52:15 Memphis Jug Band – Memphis Jug Blue Take 1 0:55:00 Bobbie Leecan’s Need-More Band – Washboard Cut Out 0:56:43 Henry Thomas – The Fox And The Hounds 0:59:16 DeFord Bailey – Pan American Blues 1:00:31 Tenneva Ramblers – The Longest Train I Ever Saw 1:02:10 J. P. Nestor – Train On the Island 1:03:23 Mead Lux Lewis – Honky Tonk Train Blues 1:05:57 Rev. A.W. Nix – Black Diamond Express to Hell 1:07:56 Rev. T.E. Weems – If I Have a Ticket Lord Can I Ride 1:09:36 Waring’s Pennsylvanians – Hello Swanee Hello 1:10:58 Paul Whiteman’s Rhythm Boys – Sweet L’il – Ain’t She Sweet (take 2) 1:12:32 Al Jolson – Excerpt from ‘The Jazz Singer’ 2 1:12:37 Jack Smith – Birth Of The Blues 1:13:52 Bessie Smith – Backwater Blues 1:15:46 Robert Hicks (Barbecue Bob) – Mississippi Heavy Water Blues 1:17:04 Chris Bouchillon – Born In Hard Luck 1:20:18 Long ‘Cleve’ Reed And Little Harvey Hull (The Down Home Boys) – Mama You Don’t Know How 1:21:43 Calvin Coolidge – Presentation Speech 1 1:21:56 Duke Ellington And His Kentucky Club Orchestra – East St. Louis Toodle-oo 1:24:59 Ed Lang – A Little Love a Little Kiss 1:26:54 Tram Bix & Lang – For No Reason At All In C 1:29:13 Calvin Coolidge – Presentation Speech 2 1:29:39 Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven – Potato Head Blues 1:30:42 Sylvians – I Need Lovin’ 1:32:15 Jelly-Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers – Wild Man Blues 1:34:25 Charles Lindbergh – Speech Part 1 1:34:43 Banjo Joe – My Money Never Runs Out 1:36:20 Charles Lindbergh – Speech Part 2 1:36:51 Charlie Parker & Mack Woolbright – Ticklish Reuben 1:37:26 Burnett & Rutherford – Ladies On the Steamboat 1:38:51 Obed Pickard of Station WSM Na – The Old Grey Horse 1:40:47 South Georgia Highballers – Blue Grass Twist 1:42:02 Frank Hutchison – The Last Scene Of The Titanic 1:43:34 Sylvester Weaver – Damfino Stump 1:44:59 Ernest Stoneman & Hattie Stoneman – Mountaineer’s Courtship 1:46:11 Uncle Dave Macon and His Fruit-Jar Drinkers – Sail Away Ladies 1:47:35 Jaybird Coleman – Mistreatin’ Mama 1:49:12 Blind Willie Johnson – Dark Was The Night — Cold Was The Ground 1:52:11 Mrs. L. Reed; Mrs. T.A. Duncans – Light in the Valley (Excerpt 2) 1:52:36 Washington Phillips – Denomination Blues 1:53:52 Elder J.E. Burch – The Church and the Kingdom 1:55:59 Rev. T.E. Weems – God Is Mad With Man 1:56:24 Rust College Quartet – Hallelujah 1:57:44 Rev. Webb – Moses Was Rescued by a Negro Woman (Excerpt 1) 1:58:04 Sister Mary Nelson – Judgement 1:58:53 Rev. Webb – Moses Was Rescued by a Negro Woman (Excerpt 2) 1:59:04 Chhunnu Khan – Sarod Instrumental 2:01:59 Truett & George – Ghost Dance 2:03:05 Andrés Segovia – Tremolo Study 2:04:20 Septeto Machín – El Guateque 2:06:08 Estudiantina Oriental De R. Martinez – Nanore 2:09:07 Wilmoth Houdini – Good Night Ladies And Gents 2:11:11 Domingo Justus – Buje 2:11:43 Douglas Papafio – Kuntum 2:12:58 Demir Cholakov – Selska Svadba [Village Wedding] 2:14:12 Abe Schwartz’s Orchestra – Rusihe Sher 2:16:19 Frank Hutchison – Logan County Blues 2:18:35 Al Bernard Accom. by Goofus Five – Hesitation Blues 2:20:29 Memphis Jug Band – Sometimes I Think I Love You 2:22:48 The Traymore Orchestra – Soliloqui 2:24:18 Miff Mole & his Molers – Davenport Blues 2:25:37 Frankie Trumbauer and His Orchestra – Crying All Day 2:27:37 Jean Goldkette and His Orchestra – My Pretty Girl 2:29:16 The Original Wolverines – Royal Garden Blues 2:31:26 Duke Ellington And His Washingtonians – Black and Tan Fantasy 2:34:47 Bennie Moten’s Kansas City Orch. – Moten Stomp 2:35:38 Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five – Hotter Than That 2:37:17 Gene Austin – My Blue Heaven 2:39:24 Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Leopold Stokowski – Toccata and Fugue in D minor (Excerpt 2)
“This time James and Sean take a trip back to the 80s – the 1880s that is. Aside from the original music we have celebrity appearances from Arthur Sullivan, Johannes Brahms, William Ewart Gladstone and Queen Victoria herself (possibly) – plus some very drunk old Englishmen (not us)”
Centuries of Sound is a monthly mix of original music and sounds from a year in history. Right now we’re up to 1926. To download full mixes and a get host of other benefits for $5 per month, please come to https://patreon.com/centuriesofsound
At Centuries of Sound I am making mixes for every year of recorded sound. The download here is a cut-down 30 minute mix, for the full two-hour version please come to centuriesofsound.com to stream, or patreon.com/centuriesofsound for downloads and a host of other bonus materials for just $5 per month.
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We’ve been waiting for a year like this for a long time; when the limitations of technology and the music business would finally be advanced enough to get out of the way and let the music speak for itself. It could not have come at a more fortuitous time – the jazz age is right at the point of moving from fun novelty to full-blown art-form, country folk is undergoing a wave of exploration, and vaudeville and the speakeasies are soaking up and celebrating all the developments of this exciting era.
We start the mix with one of the founding fathers of jazz, and mentor to Louis Armstrong, King Oliver. Here with his new Chicago-based group the “Dixie Syncopators” he plays high-octane dance tune “Deep Henderson” – the group would continue a residency at the Plantation Cafe until it burned down in 1927.
Gustav Holst’s ‘The Planets’ was one of the first orchestral pieces given the full electrical recording treatment – it really brings home what a revolution has happened in sound recording in the last couple of years. The piece started at the outbreak of the first world war in 1914, and the premier was held during its final weeks in 1918. It’s hard not to feel that ‘Mars’ is inspired by the incomprehensible, industrial carnage of those grim years.
Plenty is written about the “blues roots” of American music, but this year we have plenty to demonstrate that “church roots” or “gospel roots” might be just as important. The Birmingham Jubilee Singers were organised by Charles Bridges, a trainer of gospel quartets from Alabama. The group included the extremely deep voice of one Ed Sherrill. “He Took My Sins Away” is a particularly strong example of the innovative a capella techniques practised in churches in the Southern states of the USA. Reverend J.M. Gates one of the most prolific preachers of the pre-war era, recording over 200 sermons. Death’s Black Train Is Coming” was recorded in front of his participating congregation in Mount Calvary Baptist Church for Columbia Records after their state-of-the-art electric recording system was shipped down especially for this purpose – it sold more than 35,000 copies.
New Orleans Creole pianist Jelly Roll Morton is another of the founding fathers of jazz. By 1926 he was recording with a group called The Red Hot Peppers. Doctor Jazz is one of the best examples of the early New Orleans jazz sound, using counterpoint, pre-written stop-time breaks and improvised solo passages – truly a feast within a few minutes, and the pinnacle of this particular sound.
“Masculine Women! Feminine Men!,” performed here by journeyman singer Irving Kaufman, often turns up on lists of the earliest queer records, though it should be stressed that this is accidental. The lyrics are intended as a sardonic look at changing fashions, but the effect is detached and wry rather than offended, leading to a reasonable implication that things like sexuality and gender are ripe for exploration, generally not a big deal, and basically fine to play with – a nice introduction to the changing social mores of the time.
The craze for female blues is on the wane by 1926, but Ethel Waters has stuck around, this time without her backing band. “Make Me a Pallet on the Floor” is a folk blues, dating back to the 19th century, but its status as a standard only became fixed with this recording.
There is plenty to say about Duke Ellington elsewhere, just to note here that we have his earliest recording of East St Louis Toodle-Oo, which is usually acknowledged as his first classic. This isn’t the best recording of the track – we’ll be hearing another quite soon – but still stands out in its sheer sonic originality, even in this semi-developed form.
The tango was taking off in Argentina at this time, and the form was also having a huge influence in the old world, particularly Eastern Europe and Western Asia. We have a couple of examples here, from Greece and Turkey. Ibrahim Özgür, from Istanbul, declared the music he wrote was dedicated to the love letters sent by his female fans.
Portable electronic recording is already recording plenty of country folk music in the USA. Our first examples of this are Carl T. Sprague with a particularly morbid cowboy song, and Uncle Dave Macon with the white equivalent to the gospel tracks featured here: that is, much less adventurous in terms of harmonies, and dedicated to mocking the theory of evolution the year after the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Abe Lyman’s version of Papa Charlie Jackson’s “Shake That Thing” is a magnificent bit of raucous Chicago-style jazz, as hot as you get – you can only imagine the effect it would have on a dancefloor just eight years after the end of the first world war. Another hot jazz piece follows this, with Erskine Tate’s Vendome Orchestra – another Chicago outfit, this features a guest appearance from Louis Armstrong on cornet. Erskine’s only contribution is shouting the title at the start.
Then we have The Dixieland Jug Blowers, an example of a jug band – groups formed in the urban south who blew on jugs for lack of real instruments, and Ben Bernie, an old-time vaudeville band leader jumping whole-heartedly onto the jazz bandwagon.
Drop The Sack from Lill’s Hot Shots is Louis Armstrong’s Hot Five, operating under a pseudonym to bring Louis’s wife (piano player Lil Hardin Armstrong) to the forefront. Louis’s cornet with Johnny Dodds’ clarinet really do their best to overcome this fairly limited song and make something really special.
“Arizona” Juanita Dranes was a blind female gospel singer, and pioneer of the use of piano in gospel music. Her passionate, earthy, rough, nasal voice and her wild piano playing went on to have a great deal of influence, but mostly outside the world of church music.
The Savoy Havana Band was one of the big two British dance bands of the 1920s, formed by American saxophonist Bert Ralton, and featuring pianist Billy Mayerl, and young American saxophonist, Rudy Vallée, whose dreams of becoming a singer were roundly mocked by his band-mates.
Next we have some more old world tangos – a soulful Arabic piece from Farid & Asmahan and a hauntingly familiar-sounding tune from Greek singer Toula Amvrazi. Also soulful, but not in the tango tradition, is Said El Kurdi from Iraq, and we have passion from Iranina Morteza Ney-Davud – traditions which are undeservedly obscure in the west today.
At the age of 51, Fritz Kreisler was already regarded as perhaps the greatest violinist in the world in 1926, and his recordings had already had a great deal of effect in the use of vibrato from a new generation of musicians, eager to copy his style. At this point he was living in Paris, and playing around Europe, here with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra – but he would emigrate to the USA as Hitler seized power in Germany.
“The Laughing Policeman” is a British remake of George W Johnson’s “Laughing Song,” one of the best-selling records of the 1890s, and will be instantly familiar to UK listeners. Music hall artist Charles Penrose followed it up with The Laughing Major, The Laughing Curate, The Laughing Steeplechaser, The Laughing Typist, and The Laughing Lover, to diminishing returns.
The Happiness Boys was one of the most popular radio programs of the 1920s, and though radio was barely recorded in the 20s, we at least have novelty recordings from its two stars, Billy Jones and Ernie Hare, who also sang their novelty songs on disc. “What? No Women!” is another song of the times featuring possible transgressive undertones, maybe? Or am I imagining this?
Sol Hoʻopiʻi was one of the pioneers of the Hawaiian steel guitar, and on Farewell Blues he stretches the instrument to its limits, producing chicken squawking and pecking noises with the strings and the body. Nick Lucas was another pioneer of the guitar, though a more traditional one. Nevertheless, he has a decent claim to be the first jazz guitar soloist, and here accompanies himself on one of the biggest hits of the year, “Bye Bye Blackbird.”
Mandolin player Chris Bouchillon was also a pioneer – not so much with the mandolin, though, more with his distinctive half-singing-half-talking vocals, which he described as “Talking Blues.” If it sounds familiar, it’s because the style was picked up wholesale by Bob Dylan and others in the 1960s, and it feels slightly disconcerting to hear someone sing like that in 1926. Sam McGee, another pioneer guitar player, here presents a style which would also be picked up by folk musicians in the 1960s, though he would have a much better career, playing in a duo with his brother Kirk and becoming fixtures at the Grand Old Opry through the next few decades.
We will be hearing more from Gene Austin, one of the first crooners, but here we have him only starting to explore the new style made possible by electrical microphones.
Violinist Joe Venuti, here playing as ever with Eddie Lang, was an Italian-American jazz musician. I find Venuti and Lang’s records unbelievable because they sound just like the Hot Club De France a decade later.
Johnny Hamp’s Kentucky Serenaders were a jazz band active since the precious decade, but only making inroads into recording at this point. They were from Pennsylvania rather than Kentucky, apparently the name is taken from their performances “My Old Kentucky Home.” This is the first of two tracks featuring the sound of tap dancing, the second being from a young Fred Astaire, here performing with his (then equally famous) sister Adele. At this point both were famous for stage performances – with the start of sound film the following year Fred would audition for Paramount, and be turned down as “unsuitable for films.”
Another Jelly-Roll Morton recording, The Chant, features a brilliant performance from Kid Orly on trombone – it’s a rare cover version for Morton, and was written by Mel Stitzel of white jazz group The New Orleans Rhythm Kings.
“Heebie Jeebies” is a landmark track for Louis Armstrong, featuring a famous scat singing section. A legend says that Louis dropped his lyric sheet and improvised the vocal solo, thereby inventing scat singing, a claim disproved immediately by the existence of recorded scat singing at least 15 years prior – however the record was still very influential in the development of vocal jazz.
We have a long-awaited trip to Latin America with Cuban Son band Sexteto Occidente, a short-lived group, but one whose records and members would go on to define the genre. From Argentina we have already heard early tangos, but here we have a couple of pieces from the earlier Argentinian folk music tradition – one from Rafael Iriarte and Rosendo Pesoa, and another from Alfredo Pelaia.
The NuGrape Twins were a bizarre gospel duo from Georgia who decided not to sing about God but to voluntarily make an advertising jingle for a regional soft drink, also called NuGrape, and which is still available there today. Their story is a bit too much to go into here, but can be found in a lot more detail here – – http://nadiaberenstein.com/blog/2015/4/3/got-plenty-imitation-but-theres-none-like-mine-heavenly-nugrape
Back to the jazz, then, we have the Coon-Sanders Original Nighthawk Orchestra, a radio jazz band from Kansas City, a superb piece from multi-instrumentalist Art Landry’s jazz band, and a fourth appearance from Louis Armstrong, here again guesting with Erskine Tate’s Vendome Orchestra on “Static Strut”
Back over to Europe, we have a novelty jazz piece from the other big UK band leader, Bert Firman (by no coincidence the regional musical director for Zonophone Records), and something a bit more substantial from Romanian violin virtuoso Grigoraș Ionică Dinicu, a breathtakingly beautiful piece called Ciocârlia, composed by his grandfather Angheluș Dinicu
Cortot, Thibaud and Casals were already three of the most celebrated and widely-recorded classical musicians in the world, and all in their mid-40s already, but it wasn’t until 1926 that new technology allowed them to live up to their potential as recording artists. Here their playing is at once light and suffused with great depth.
More jazz then, from trombonist Brad Gowans, an early release from future superstar band leader Fletcher Henderson, and a rare lead recording from George McClennon, adoptive son of Bert Williams and virtuoso novelty clarinet player, probably a holdover from the last age but here sounding right up to date.
“In the Pines” AKA “Where Did You Sleep Last Night?” is one of those American murder ballads with an unknown, presumably ancient lineage – it had been around at least fifty years before this, perhaps its first definitive recording, by Dock Walsh. Another link to the old folk tradition of the rural USA is provided by Uncle Bunt Stevens, whose style apparently reflects music played prior to the American Civil War.
A couple of European superstars are next – Maurice Chevalier, a big stage and screen name in France already, and from Spain, Pablo Casals, perhaps the greatest cellist of all time – I can’t help think the mournful style of this recording anticipates somehow his exile from his home country under Franco.
And finally, Paul Robeson, one of the defining performers of his age, here putting absolutely everything into a performance of “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot.”
Anyone still with me? Well done, it’s been quite the journey this time, thank you for listening.
0:00:22 The Savoy Orpheans – Radio Christmas 1926 (Excerpt 1) 0:00:40 King Oliver And His Dixie Syncopators – Deep Henderson 0:03:44 Edward B. Craft – The Voice from the Screen (Excerpt 1) 0:03:56 Gustav Holst with London Symphony Orchestra – Mars from The Planets 0:07:04 Birmingham Jubilee Singers – He Took My Sins Away 0:08:16 Rev. J. M. Gates – Death’s Black Train Is Coming 0:09:56 Jelly-Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers – Dead Man Blues 0:10:12 Jelly-Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers – Doctor Jazz 0:13:33 Al Jolson – April Showers (Intro) 0:13:38 Irving Kaufman – Masculine Women! Feminine Men! 0:15:17 Ethel Waters – Make Me A Pallet On The Floor 0:16:51 Rev. S.J. ‘Steamboat Bill’ Worell – The Prodigal Son 0:19:51 Duke Ellington and his Kentucky Club Orchestra – East St Louis Toodle-Oo 0:22:30 Banat Chemama, Malouf, Leila Sfez, Fritna Damon, Habbiba Msika, Louisia Tounsia… – Habibi Ghab (Leila Sfez) 0:22:51 Danae & Panos Visvardis – Aishe 0:25:45 Ibrahim Özgür – Son nefes 0:27:54 Compagnia Columbia – Il Funerale di Rodolfo Valentino (Excerpt 1) 0:28:17 Carl T. Sprague – O Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie (The Dying Cowboy) 0:29:45 Uncle Dave Macon – The Bible’s True 0:31:08 Edward B. Craft – The Voice from the Screen (Excerpt 2) 0:31:15 Abe Lyman – Shake That Thing 0:34:12 Erskine Tate’s Vendome Orchestra – Stomp Off, Let’s Go 0:36:00 Dixieland Jug Blowers – House Rent Rag 0:38:02 Ben Bernie & His Hotel Rooswelt Orchestra – Hello! Swanee, Hello 0:39:59 Lill’s Hot Shots – Drop That Sack 0:41:34 Rev. J.M. Gates – Death Might Be Your Santa Claus (Excerpt 1) 0:42:31 Arizona Dranes – It’s All Right Now 0:44:26 Rev. J.M. Gates – Death Might Be Your Santa Claus (Excerpt 2) 0:45:14 Taskiana Four – Creep Along, Moses 0:47:04 Rev. J.C. Burnett – The Downfall of Nebuchadnezzar 0:48:11 The Savoy Havana Band – Turkish Towel 0:49:43 Farid & Asmahan – Ishak ya boulboul 0:51:36 Toula Amvrazi – Sultana 0:54:17 Morteza Ney-Davud – ‘Oshshaq, Bayat Esfahan (Homayun) (Excerpt 1) 0:54:43 Said El Kurdi – Kassem Miro 0:56:20 Morteza Ney-Davud – ‘Oshshaq, Bayat Esfahan (Homayun) (Excerpt 2) 0:56:46 Sally Hamlin and Myrtle C. Eaver – The Sugar-Plum Tree (Excerpt 1) 0:56:55 Fritz Kreisler & Berlin State Opera Orchestra – Mendelssohn Violin Concerto e-moll Op.64 0:58:48 Sally Hamlin and Myrtle C. Eaver – The Sugar-Plum Tree (Excerpt 2) 0:59:05 Charles Penrose – The Laughing Policeman 1:01:28 George Formby – I Was A Willing Young Lad 1:01:40 Billy Jones & Ernest Hare – What? No Women! 1:03:05 Sol Hoʻopiʻi’s Novelty Trio – Farewell Blues 1:04:31 Nick Lucas – Bye Bye Blackbird 1:06:00 Chris Bouchillon – Hannah 1:07:32 Sam McGee – The Franklin Blues 1:08:58 Vernon Dalhart – Ain’t-Ya Comin’ Out To-Night? 1:10:57 Gene Austin – Ya Gotta Know How To Love 1:13:31 Joe Venuti – Stringin’ The Blues (1) (+ Eddie Lang) 1:15:58 Johnny Hamp’s Kentucky Serenaders – Black Bottom 1:18:33 Fred Astaire – Half Of It Dearie Blues (+ Adele Astaire & George Gershwin) 1:21:18 Jelly-Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers – Sidewalk Blues 1:21:33 Jelly-Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers – The Chant 1:23:43 Louis Armstrong And His Hot Five – Heebie Jeebies 1:25:51 King Oliver’s Jazz Band – Wa Wa Wa 1:27:28 Sexteto Occidente – Miguel, Los Hombres No Lloran 1:30:16 Iriarte and Pesoa – Libertad 1:31:35 Alfredo Pelaia – Chinita 1:32:58 Dick Henderson – Introduction 1:33:00 NuGrape Twins – I Got Your Ice Cold Nugrape 1:35:44 Bessie Smith – Jazzbo Brown From Memphis Town 1:37:32 Dick Henderson – “She has the advantage of me…” 1:37:37 Coon-Sanders Original Nighthawk Orchestra – Brainstorm 1:40:24 Art Landry and His Orchestra – Slippery Elm 1:41:27 Erskine Tate’s Vendome Orchestra – Static Strut 1:43:32 Bert Firman & His Band – You Got ‘ Em 1:44:55 Stanley Roper – Impressions Of London (Excerpt) 1:45:12 Grigoraș Dinicu – Ciocârlia 1:47:54 Cortot, Thibaud and Cassals – Schubert Trio No. 1 in B Flat – Op. 99 1st Movement 1:49:10 The Revelers – Blue Room 1:51:06 Gowan’s Rhapsody Makers – I’ll Fly To Hawaii 1:52:01 The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra – Stampede 1:54:33 George Mcclennon’s Jazz Devils – While You’re Sneaking Out 1:56:48 Joe Candullo and His Everglades Orchestra – Brown Sugar 1:59:51 Dock Walsh – In The Pines 2:01:24 Uncle Bunt Stephens – Candy Girl 2:02:08 Maurice Chevalier – Moi Je Fais Mes Coups En Dessous 2:04:08 Pablo Casals – Saint- Saens – Le Cygne (The Swan) 2:06:11 Compagnia Columbia – Il Funerale di Rodolfo Valentino (Excerpt 2) 2:06:38 Paul Robeson – Swing Low Sweet Chariot 2:08:43 The Savoy Orpheans – Radio Christmas 1926 (Excerpt 2)
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